Any healthy adult seeking to improve his or her mental faculties can become a nootropic user.
In fact, the online nootropics community is made up of mostly healthy individuals looking to use nootropics to attain motivation and more lucid thinking.
An online survey on nootropic usage reveals most of the respondents as males.
The survey targeted people in two of the biggest online nootropics communities: Reddit and LongeCity.
Participants were asked to describe their experiences with 31 different substances, and rate them on a scale of 1 – 10 in terms of effectiveness (1 being not effective at all and 10 being very effective).
Here are the results of that study:
As expected, drugs like Adderall and Modafinil (which really aren’t even classified as typical Nootropics) rated very highly, while many of the lesser known nootropics rated poorly.
However, what was interested to note was that some of the nootropics, most notably Phenibut and Phenylpiracetam, performed very well, considering they’re available over the counter.
Out of the 162 respondents, 92 percent were males and 8 percent were females.
The average age was 25.
But that’s not to say that only “youngsters” use nootropics.
Remember, the survey interviewed only a designated number of people, and only some responded.
So, somewhere out there are probably hordes of other people adding to the nootropics-user base.
But we will stick to what we can support.
Besides being used by enthusiasts for learning, studying and sharpening their mental firepower, nootropics has been shown to help the elderly and those suffering from brain trauma.
Nootropics Versus Smart Drugs: Is There a Difference?
Chances are, you have already searched the Internet for the word “nootropics” and got redirected to a bevy of articles referring to them as “smart drugs.” This can get confusing, as many websites don’t explain whether there’s a difference between nootropics and smart drugs.
Yet there is a difference, according to an article written by Dr. Andrew Hill, lead neuroscientist at truBrain.
In the nootropics community, however, the terms are often used interchangeably.
Since it’s generally acceptable to label nootropics and smart drugs as one in the same, there’s nothing wrong with adopting this trend.
But for the sake of knowledge and accuracy, it pays to know the difference.
Let’s set the record straight.
Smart drugs are usually prescribed by doctors to treat symptoms of mental or cognitive disorders.
For instance, Ritalin and Adderall are stimulants used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Smart drugs typically contain stimulants, which boost energy and focus, but can also be detrimental in someone with heart or cardiac issues.
The stimulants in these drugs increase dopamine and norepinephrine levels, which can cause tolerance and dependence, negatively affecting stress levels, appetite, mood and cardiac function.
Smart drugs operate like amphetamines in that they stimulate the brain’s neurotransmitters to promote focus and alertness, similar to how caffeine operates.
On the flip side, a nootropic is a non-prescribed natural or synthetic compound made from herbs, vitamins and other supplements.
It’s designed to increase or safeguard cognition, and when taken properly by a generally healthy individual, typically does not produce side effects.
As Giurgea stated, the objectives of nootropics should always be to promote cognitive abilities and flow, while avoiding the side effects of harsh substances such as stimulants.
Hopefully, this introduction has given you sound insight into the fundamentals of nootropics.
Now it’s time to dig deeper and discover the different types of nootropics.
Eugeroic stimulants – such as modafinil and adrafinil – operate like smart drugs, but they generally don’t produce significant spikes in heart rate or blood pressure nor do they produce euphoria or the propensity for abuse.
This is in contrast to conventional stimulant medications such as Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts), Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine) and Ritalin (methylphenidate, a compound structurally related to amphetamine).
Eugeroic stems from Greek word meaning “good arousal.” It is a wakefulness-promoting agent that makes it easier to stay up longer and temporarily helps to avoid sleep deprivation.
Eugeroics are not a replacement for sleep.
Instead, they enable wakefulness to facilitate productivity.
They can be especially useful when you’re forced to sit through a boring class or perform monotonous sleep-inducing work.
You will probably never see someone on the street selling their parents’ TV for their next hit of modafinil.
But that doesn’t mean side effects aren’t possible.
Modafinil and adrafinil’s effect on mental functioning (beyond wakefulness) have not been confirmed, and although side effects are uncommon, they can be life threatening.
While some eugeroic stimulants require a prescription (e.g. modafinil), others don’t (e.g. adrafinil).
They’re good for you.” We might hear these words incessantly from someone we know, and dismiss this person as patronizing or nagging.
But they’re right!
While there’s a great deal of quackery in the alternative health field, there’s also solid evidence on the benefits of vitamins and supplements, with regards to mood, motivation, alertness, etc.
Vitamins, minerals and other nutrients are often overlooked as possible pathways to personal enhancement, but they have a positive effect on mild psychiatric symptoms, perceived stress and the mood of people who are generally healthy.
Supplements with high doses of B vitamin, especially, may be more effective for improving mood.
We cannot ignore, though, individuals who assume that because many supplements are “all natural,” the substances contained in them are harmless.
This line of thinking is both erroneous and extremely dangerous.
Some of these supplements, including members of the B vitamin family as well as vitamin D, can cause physiological toxicity (including, but not limited to, neurotoxicity).
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential to human health, but the body cannot produce them; we have to obtain them through food or supplements.
Fish, certain plants and nut oils all have Omega-3 fatty acids – which some scientists believe can protect against Alzheimer’s disease and dementia plus help lower the risk of heart disease and cancer.
A word of caution: if you’re consuming fish or extracted fish oil regularly as a source of Omega-3 fatty acids, be sure to verify that it’s not contaminated with mercury.
We could consider mercury as an anti-nootropic because of its hazardous impact on cognitive functioning that results from mercury poisoning.
Stay with us, folks.
Coming up next we will prove the beneficial effects of nootropics.
Nootropics have shown positive effects in patients suffering from stroke, dementia and brain injury.
Aphasia – a condition that affects the ability to communicate – usually happens after a stroke or head injury.
The condition negatively impacts speech and the ability to understand verbal and written communication.
In some cases, aphasia can occur gradually due to a degenerative disease or slow-growing brain tumor.
Language and speech therapy are the primary treatments for aphasia; however, piracetam has been found to have a beneficial effect on the recovery of aphasic stroke.
In one study, 24 aphasic patients were given 4.8g daily doses of piracetam, while 26 patients received placebo.
Both the piracetam and placebo groups had similar symptoms in terms of type and severity.
The study did not include people suffering from mild aphasia, and all of the patients had been healthy prior to experiencing a stroke or brain trauma.
The subjects underwent 10 intensive 60-minute language therapy sessions.
The result? Piracetam had a significantly favorable effect on the written language subtest.
On the communicative ability scale, the piracetam group’s scores in spontaneous speech improved.
Also, no adverse effects were reported in the piracetam group.
While this was only one trial and can hardly be considered definitive, another study on these same subjects confirmed that piracetam can boost written language skills plus reduce the severity of the subjects’ aphasia (Poeck, 1998).
Dementia is the loss of intellectual abilities, resulting in a serious inability to perform everyday tasks.
It’s not a disease in itself, but rather the term used to describe an extensive range of symptoms linked to a decline in memory and other thinking skills.
Alzheimer’s disease is the most prevalent form of dementia.
Elderly individuals with Alzheimer’s frequently display a lower “hydrocarbon core” (which is associated with the cell membranes) fluidity than elderly people who don’t have the disease.
In a study involving in vitro administration of piracetam, the dementia patients’ hydrocarbon core fluidity went up to the same level as the non-demented elderly.
On top of that, piracetam enhanced the fluidity of those who did not have the disease.
For both groups, piracetam was shown to decrease age-related alterations of membrane fluidity (Eckert et al., 1999).
An analysis of this research revealed that individuals treated with piracetam showed a 60.9 percent improvement, compared to a 32.5 percent improvement in those treated with placebo.
Like its sister compound piracetam, aniracetam has proven to be effective in selective areas.
In three different animal studies, researchers found aniracetam to have anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) properties.
We will, however, spare you the dreary details by providing just one example. And we will keep things interesting by engaging in a bit of sibling rivalry...
In one of the studies, aniracetam was found to be superior to piracetam, which has been monopolizing the nootropics research spotlight for decades.
It’s time for aniracetam to shine.
The purpose of the study, which was conducted throughout Western Europe, was to determine whether aniracetam could benefit people ages 68 to 80 who had mild to moderate cognitive impairment and met the criteria for likely having dementia stemming from Alzheimer’s.
One group received 1500mg of aniracetam, another group got 2400mg of piracetam, and the last group was given placebo.
Each group took their doses daily for a 6-month period.
Throughout the trial, the placebo group’s mental health continued to deteriorate.
The result? The aniracetam group experienced few side effects, and the ones that were present were so mild and transitory that no subject had to stop treatment as a result. On top of that, aniracetam proved to be even more effective than piracetam in this trial, and has shown to have anxiolytic effects in animal studies.
A traumatic brain injury happens when an external force causes the brain to dysfunction, such as a violent blow to the head or body.
It can also occur when an object, such as a bullet, pierces the skull.
Phenylpiracetam has been approved in Russia for correcting cerebrovascular deficiency, focusing attention, ameliorating apathy, and slowing memory decline.
Phenylpiracetam is even prescribed to astronauts in Russia who use it to sharpen their physical and mental abilities while in space (Malykh & Sadaie, 2010).
Phenylpiracetam is especially noteworthy because it’s fast-acting and absorbs well orally.
The compound has enhanced the cognition scores of people with cognitive impairment or depression following encephalopathy, and brain injuries such as acute lesions, gliomas surgery and brain traumas.
In one study, phenylpiracetam performed even better than piracetam because it worked substantially faster to mend cognitive injury, along with ridding the patients of headaches. Piracetam, defeated again!
And not for the last time either…
Pramiracetam has been reported to improve cognitive deficits resulting from brain trauma.
Ukrainian studies found that pramiracetam is superior to piracetam at restoring memory loss in patients suffering from mild craniocerebral trauma (Malykh & Sadaie, 2010).
In addition, Italian researchers found that pramiracetam was 50 percent more effective than placebo in reducing amnesia-related effects caused by scopolamine intoxication.
Choline deficiency can increase the risk of DNA damage.
Choline and its derivatives are not vitamins per se, but in 1998 they were recognized by the Institute of Medicine as being necessary to maintaining human health.
Basically, choline is the precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is involved in muscle control and memory.
To reinforce the importance of choline, the Linus Pauling Institute issued a warning about choline deficiency, which can cause DNA damage and fatty liver.
In a study involving 57 people who were on a choline-deficient diet, 80 percent of the postmenopausal women, 44 percent of the premenopausal women, and 77 percent of the men had liver damage, fatty liver, or muscle damage of some sort.
Estrogen levels might have been the issue with the premenopausal women; however, adding choline to the subjects’ diets fixed the problem rather quickly.
Huperzia serrata is a plant that contains the alkaloid huperzine A, another treatment that, for whatever reason, all too often gets swept under the rug and isn’t given the attention it deserves.
WebMd has a great section on huperzine A’s function in the treatment of age-related memory problems and Alzheimer’s disease.
This supplement shows promise in improving memory, learning and energy levels.
As previously discussed, huperzine A belongs to a group of cholinergics known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
By blocking the activity of the enzyme responsible for breaking down acetylcholine, huperzine A increases the amount of acetylcholine present in the brain and lengthens the duration.
Vitamins and Supplements
Taking B-complex vitamin supplements is especially important because many of us don’t get enough of them in our diets.
Whole processed foods have the highest amounts of B vitamins, but it’s often difficult to find them in local grocery stores.
B vitamins include: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12. That’s a lot of siblings, and deficiency in any of them will result in complications.
For instance, severe, persistent thiamine (B1) deficiency can cause limb pain, irregular heartbeat, edema and even death.
Thiamine deficiency can also cause all sorts of neurological dysfunctions that affect memory, coordination and vision.
Smokers, alcoholics, coffee drinkers and people who eat large amounts of certain kinds of fish are all at risk for developing thiamine deficiency.
You will find that each B vitamin has its own benefits.
Folic acid (B9) deficiency in pregnant women can cause birth defects and impaired mental functioning in other people.
However, studies indicate that folic acid supplementation may reduce symptoms of depression.
Pyridoxine (B6) relieves depression, memory problems and peripheral neuropathies caused by dietary deficiencies.
It can also reduce women’s chances of developing macular degeneration, the leading cause of vision loss.
Biotin (B7) plays a crucial role in metabolism, and is necessary for glucose and amino acids production.
Biotin deficiency can cause vomiting, anorexia, dermatitis and neurological symptoms, including lethargy, hallucinations and peripheral neuropathy.
Liver, egg yolks, kidney and nuts are all good sources of biotin.
If you cannot access these foods, try cereal or biotin supplements (Schnepp, 2002).
Bacopa monierri (brahmi) is a plant native to India that has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for a host of problems, especially those dealing with anxiety and intellect. In rat studies, brahmi improved memory retention and reduced amnesia caused by electroconvulsive shock, scopolamine intoxication and/or immobilization.
But it improved their scores on recalling unrelated word pairs (Roodenrys et al., 2002).
We definitely cannot end this chapter without extending a shout-out to sulbutiamine, a nootropic related to thiamine (B1), but has a greater ability to cross the blood-brain barrier than its parent compound.
Sulbutiamine has shown promise in the treatment of asthenia and memory impairment.
Stay tuned for a behind-the-scenes look at how nootropics work.
There are several decades of collected data indicating that piracetam and its derivatives are significantly involved with cholinergic functioning in the CNS.
Cholinergic receptors are cells containing a molecular structure that responds to the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.
These receptors – which are linked to the activity of acetylcholine – fall into two sub-types: nicotinic and muscarinic receptors.
Nicotinic receptors are characterized via their interaction with nicotine, while muscarinic receptors are characterized through their interaction with muscarine – an alkaloid that can be found in certain toxic mushrooms.
Acetylcholine is responsible for all sorts of processes, including our ability to focus and the encoding of memories.
The cells, or sites, that respond to acetylcholine are called “cholinergic.”
Where do racetams fit into all this?
It’s long been established that piracetam and other racetams provide considerable protection against the detrimental mental effects of scopolamine, an anticholinergic drug – meaning, a drug that wreaks havoc on the action of acetylcholine, in this case at muscarinic receptors.
Research suggests that the use of cholinergic agents (such as choline and DMAE) with piracetam may have a profoundly positive impact on cholinergic function and memory enhancement.
As we can see, despite hoarding the research limelight, piracetam is an effective nootropic.
One study involving piracetam administration in aged rats showed growth in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density in the hippocampi, striata and frontal cortices of the treated animals.
Additionally, in vitro data for pramiracetam indicates that it increases the rate of sodium-sensitive choline uptake in rat synaptosomes (Malykh & Sadaie, 2010).
A Note about Aniracetam
As mentioned, aniracetam facilitates activity at AMPA receptors.
But it would be a mistake to think that the AMPA activity neatly explains aniracetam’s efficacy.
Studies on rodents reveal that dopaminergic, cholinergic and sertonergic neuronal mechanisms all play a role in aniracetam’s anxiolytic or anxiety-relieving effects.
Coupled with its nootropic activity and greater potency than piracetam, aniracetam is said to be an effective anxiolytic in both humans and animals.
Aniracetam is powerful in at least two different ways: first, via a direct nootropic effect promoting more efficient data processing; and second, by reducing anxiety.
Depending on what you’re seeking in a nootropic, you might find that even the mighty aniracetam has its shortcomings.
The supplement has a fairly short half-life (~2 hours), which can be a detriment or a benefit depending on your purposes.
If you’re seeking a long-acting nootropic, aniracetam will disappoint you.
But if you want to enhance your intellectual performance over shorter spans of time, aniracetam will live up to your expectations.
In summary: Piracetam and its derivatives have many other possible modes of action.
While researchers are still getting to the bottom of just how racetams work in the brain and body, what we do know at this point can help us form solid nootropic regimens.
Up next is the ultimate battle: nootropics versus medications?
We’ve discussed the benefits of nootropics when compared to placebo and against one another.
But how do nootropics fare when compared to prescription medications?
Racetams versus Anti-depressants (MAOIs, SSRIs)
In Russia, phenylpiracetam is a medication, prescribed to treat depression and apathy (Malaykh & Sadaie, 2010).
Further, piracetam has shown promise in treating depression stemming from chronic cerebrovascular disorders.
Unlike MAOIs and SSRIs – which are prescribed for depression – racetam usage can be stopped without unpleasant withdrawal effects.
Many users of SSRIs have reported feeling “zombified” while under the influence of these substances, which only slightly out-perform placebo.
While on MAOIs, users must adhere to a strict diet as foods high in tyramine (such as cured/dried meats, aged cheese, spoiled foods, soy sauce, and more) cause a dangerous spike in blood pressure (Hall-Flavin, Daniel, 2013).
These dietary restrictions are not necessary with racetams.
The winner? Racetams
Aniracetam vs. Benzodiazepines (alprazolam, diazepam, lorazepam, clonazepam)
In a study of mice in which one group received aniracetam and another diazepam, the former showed anxiolytic effects in four different anxiety models compared to the latter’s two (Nakamura & Kurasawa, 2001).
Benzodiazepines are great as quick treatments for panic attacks, but frequent and extended use of them is not necessarily a good idea.
People who are dependent on benzodiazepines may experience withdrawal symptoms upon cessation; if serious enough, it can lead to seizures and even death.
Aniracetam has no such withdrawal symptoms.
The winner? Aniracetam
Modafinil vs. Amphetamine Salts
Modafinil is a “smart drug” that allows you to study for hours and easily recall the data you memorized.
While many people regard Modafinil as a nootropic, and a few consider amphetamine as one as well, both are prescription medications in the US.
Adderall users with severe ADD and ADHD sometimes have difficulty using modafinil in place of their usual medication, but they report positive results from lowering Adderall’s dosage and adding modafinil to their regimen.
While modafinil is a prescription drug in the US, it’s worth mentioning because it falls under the term “nootropic.” As information currently stands, modafinil does not produce euphoria comparable to traditional stimulants.
This data, along with trials conducted, have led scientists to conclude that modafinil may have abuse potential, but that it’s much lower when compared to amphetamine or methamphetamine.
Modafinil is promoted as a “wakefulness agent,” at first being used to treat narcolepsy in patients.
It has since soared in popularity as a nootropic because of its effectiveness in boosting memory and focus.
Peter Borden, a fan of acupuncture and alternative health in general, said this about modafinil: “My senses sort of shifted to the visual, and my auditory sense went down. Sounds didn’t even register.
It was like walking around on a winter day when it just snowed.
It was very easy to stay visually focused” (Kolker 2013).
However, if you’re an insomniac, neither of these medications are recommended.
The victor has been decided.
Still, triumph doesn’t necessarily mean perfection, as we will see in the next chapter which addresses potential downsides of taking nootropics.
Though research shows that nootropics carry an almost nonexistent degree of toxicity and are generally safe, that doesn’t mean side effects can’t happen.
Many nootropics have not been studied over a long-term period, especially in humans.
In general, the biggest concerns with respect to side effects are the development of the user’s brain, dosage being consumed, the nootropic’s mechanism of action, how long the user has been taking the substance, and how often they use it.
As noted in the book, Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology, there are some critical implications in the use of cognitive enhancers, especially in children and adolescents whose brain aren’t fully developed (Stolerman, 2010).
Evolving science indicates that most people don’t reach full brain development until they get to age 25, though most laws in the US recognize individuals age 18 and older as adults.
There are mixed reviews on how nootropics might affect the developing brain.
Some believe that nootropics likely don’t pose a threat and can actually improve brain development.
Others speculate that the brain might be susceptible to dependence.
Regardless of which team you’re on, the issue of brain development deserves consideration.
From a dosage perspective, consuming high amounts of certain nootropics/ smart drugs (such as modafinil), may result in dependence, as they are involved in the areas of the brain which are linked to substance abuse.
Because nootropics can be so effective, many people end up taking them for the long term.
To complicate matters, we don’t know the specific side effects that may materialize in healthy people who are long-term users (Stolerman, 2010).
However, some argue that tolerance can be developed.
There are numerous types of nootropics, in drug and supplement forms. Each one has a mode of action, which may not fully mirror the others’.
Whether long-term usage proves detrimental also depends on the specific nootropic.
And this is where piracetam glows.
Because piracetam has been exhaustively studied – plus it’s not as potent as some of the newer nootropics – many agree that it’s the best for long-term usage.
It’s also regarded as the quintessential “starter nootropic” for first-time users.
Reported side effects for piracetam include agitation, nervousness, anxiety, irritability and sleep interruptions.During clinical trials, the incidence of these effects were 5 percent or less and were generally spotted in older individuals taking more than 2.4g per day.
In most cases, reducing the dosage made the symptoms go away.
Pardon the “hammering into your head” approach here, but we must stress that nootropics do not affect everyone equally.
While one person may not have any side effects with long-term use, someone else might.
We should therefore avoid assuming that nootropics will not carry side effects.
Reviews from nootropic users on website forums can hardly be seen as facts.
Still, it bears noting that many of the users on these forums reported no side effects, while some claimed to have mild effects – the most common being headache, anxiety, confusion and gastrointestinal upset.
In most racetam trials of humans, patients who experienced these effects were able to adjust without leaving the trial.
In a study of 84 healthy subjects who received Bacopa administration, only one patient withdrew due to gastrointestinal problems.
Though side effects are possible, all is not lost.
By taking the following steps, you can lower the risk of adverse reactions:
Wait for your brain to fully develop (age 25 or later)
Research the nootropic thoroughly before consuming it
Have a good reason for taking nootropics
Keep your dosage at the lowest effective level
Use nootropics only when necessary
Give nootropics a break periodically (also called “cycling”)
Take choline when consuming racetams to avoid headaches
Stop taking the nootropic if you encounter side effects
The bottom line is that although nootropics are generally safe, exercise caution when using them.
Now that you’ve seen the woeful effects of nootropics, it’s time to learn the art of stacking. Sounds exciting?
Stacking refers to taking more than one nootropic to get the effect you want. Sounds dangerous?
If nootropics were built like prescription drugs, then we would say “yes.”
But many nootropics actually work better when taken with another nootropic – either the effects improve or side effects decrease.
In such cases, the nootropic work in tandem, complimenting and enhancing each other.
One thing to keep in mind is that the best nootropics stacks contain properties that are different from each other, typically in their mechanism of action (Simola, 2015).
If two racetams operate in the same manner, there’s no point in taking them as a stack.
You would be better off taking, say piracetam and choline, which have two different modes of action.
Now before you rush out and go buy heaps of nootropics, remember the golden rule: moderation is the key to success. Taking too many stacks could result in some of the side effects we mentioned in the previous chapter.
When you’re just starting out, keep things simple.
Choose a mild nootropic, such as piracetam, rather than one that has not undergone many studies in humans.
If the effects are positive, you can gradually add more nootropics to your regimen.
Monitoring your results while testing new nootropics is instrumental to your success (Simola, 2015).
If you start getting side effects after integrating a certain nootropic into your stack, consider removing it.
If you’re new to stacking, you can buy a pre-made stack.
Though this gives you no control over the dosage, it may be the best place to start since the intake amount is already determined for you.
Once you have a solid understanding of nootropics, you can create your own stack.
But before you start stacking away, ask yourself:
What exactly do I want to take a supplement for?
Do I want to increase my focus or ability to concentrate for extended periods of time?
Or do I simply want to relax?
What medications or supplements am I currently on?
Are any of them contraindicated to (as in, should not be used with) the nootropics I’m interested in?
Is it necessary for me to take more than one nootropic at a time?
Since newbies are advised to start out with one nootropic, the rest of this chapter is for those who have been taking nootropics for a while and would like to find the right combinations.
Many nootropics enthusiasts consider this combination a necessity, rather than a “stack.” Various animal studies conclude that the racetam family paired with a source of choline produces optimal results.
One trial found that piracetam + choline led to enhanced memory retention more than piracetam alone (Bartus et al., 1981).
Choline is said to help piracetam work faster, and can eliminate headaches caused by taking racetams alone.
The cholinergic huperzine A functions similarly when combined with piracetam.
Aniracetam + CDP choline (citicoline)
Due to aniracetam’s anxiolytic effects and citicoline’s efficacy, this is a favored combination, according to the Best Nootropic review website.
One collective stack currently on the market is Nootrobrain, which contains aniracetam, citicoline, Bacopa leaf and vitamin B6.
Racetam (and/or Modafinil and similar drugs) + Essential Vitamins
If you notice that your diet lacks essential vitamins, try adding them in addition to piracetam, aniracetam, etc. and/or modafinil, adrafinil, etc. Earlier we discussed the signs of certain B vitamin deficiencies.
To determine how healthy your diet is, have your doctor run some tests and follow his or her recommendations.
Since nootropics are rarely toxic, as long as you take the right amount of vitamins and refrain from over-stacking, this combination will be beneficial.
Nootrobrain, for example, fuses vitamin B6 with aniracetam (plus citicoline and Bacopa leaf).
In this merger, the choline (or choline derivative) boosts the effects of huperzine A, further enhancing concentration.
Choline itself shows evidence of helping to slow down age-related memory loss.
Optimind (www.GetOptimind.com) is a nootropic on the market that blends huperzine A and choline, along with DMAE, caffeine, Vitamins B6 and B12, and green tea leaf extract for the purpose of promoting learning while increasing energy.
On a personal note, I first learned about Phenibut when a company that sells the substance asked me to test and review it.
If you’ve never heard of Phenibut, it’s actually a substance that was discovered by Russian scientists nearly 30 years ago, and is a central nervous system depressant and derivative of y-aminobutyric-acid.
Phenibut – which has been shown in clinical studies to produce feelings of calm and euphoria – works GREAT as an anti-anxiety supplement.
Notice we said that Phenibut is a CNS depressant.
You might wonder…“How could this work like Adderall if it’s a depressant?”
In my personal experience, Phenibut in LOW doses (500 mg or less, spread out) COMBINED with a stimulant seems to have the OPPOSITE effect.
It’s not a hyper, jittery, I feel like I’m on an amphetamine effect, but a very controlled, deliberate, calming and smooth FOCUS and CONCENTRATION gold mine...
Remember the first time you used Adderall? Remember that feeling of euphoria, laser focus, insane concentration, and overall good mood you got?
It’s literally the same effect the first time you use this combo.
In the US, modafinil and leviracetam are FDA-approved prescription drugs.
However, most nootropics – such as piracetam, aniracetam and oxiracetam – have not been approved by the FDA, though it is not illegal to possess them.
According to the Eurowid website, in the US, it is legal to use, possess, and import piracetam for the purpose of “personal use.” In Mexico, however, piracetam is a prescription drug.
To figure the legal status of nootropics, check the laws in your country.
Hopefully we have provided you with at least some of the answers to your most pressing concerns.
If you still have questions, search the Internet, or consult with your physician (or an attorney, in the case of nootropics’ legal status).
Racetam, ampakine, choline, B vitamin, natural nootropic, smart drug, not to mention their countless siblings… With so many nootropics available, confusion is a natural state of mind when it comes to picking one.
But we’ve got it all figured out for you – just scroll to the next chapter
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